القائمة الرئيسية



تابعنا على


 


الارشيف


الاسبوع الماضي







العالمية اون لاين

العالمية للأدوية البيطرية - سوريا - حلب - هاتف 00963214710095
حمل برشور منتجات العالمية

 اضغط هنا ::حمل برشور خاص لمنتجات العالمية للأدوية البيطرية

Get our toolbar!

استمع الى القران الكريم بصوت الشيخ ماهر المعيقلي


القائمة البريدية

البريد الالكتروني:



بحث في موقع العالمية




RSS

للحصول على اخر الاخبار اول باول وقت حصولها يمكنك الاشتراك بخدمة RSS عبر الرابط التالي:

شاركنا التصويت

هل تهتم لما يتابعه أبناؤك عبر الإنترنت؟

نعم
لا


الجهاز الهظمي عند الخيل محاظرات نظري

Digestive system ,Horses and other Equids evolved as grazing animals, adapted to eating small amounts of the same kind of food all day long. In the wild, the horse adapted to eating prairie grasses in semi-arid regions and traveling significant distances each day in order to obtain adequate nutrition.[2] Therefore, the digestive system of a horse is about 100 feet (30 m) long, and most of this is intestines.

The mouth
Digestion begins in the mouth, which is also called the "oral cavity." It is made up of the teeth, the hard palate, the soft palate, the tongue and related muscles, the cheeks and the lips. Horses also have three pairs of salivary glands, the parotid (largest salivary gland and located near the poll), submaxillary (located in the jaw), and sublingual (located under the tongue). Horses select pieces of forage and pick up finer foods, such as grain, with their sensitive, prehensile lips. The front teeth of the horse, called incisors, clip forage, and food is then pushed back in the mouth by the tongue, and ground up for swallowing by the premolars and molars. [3]

[ The esophagus
The esophagus is about 4-5 feet in length, and carries food to the stomach. A muscular ring, called the cardiac sphincter, connects the stomach to the esophagus. This sphincter is very well developed in horses. This and the oblique angle at which the esophagus connects to the stomach explains why horses cannot vomit.[3] The esophagus is also the area of the digestive tract where horses may suffer from choke.

[ The stomach
Horses have a relatively small stomach for their size, and this limits the amount of feed a horse can take in at one time. The average sized horse (800 to 1200 lb) has a stomach with a capacity of only four gallons, and works best when it contains about two gallons. Because the stomach empties when 2/3 full, whether stomach enzymes have completed their processing of the food or not, and doing so prevents full digestion and proper utilization of feed, continuous foraging or several small feedings per day are preferable to one or two large ones.[3] The horse stomach consists of a non-glandular proximal region (saccus cecus), divided by a distinct border, the margo plicata, from the glandular distal stomach[4].

In the stomach, assorted acids and the enzyme pepsin break down food. Pepsin allows for the further breakdown of proteins into amino acid chains.[3] Other enzymes include resin and lipase. Additionally, the stomach absorbs some water, as well as ions and lipid soluble compounds. The end product is food broken down into chyme.[citation needed] It then leaves the stomach through the pyloric valve, which controls the flow of food out of stomach.[citation needed]


[The small intestine
The horse’s small intestine is 50 to 70 feet (21 m) long and holds 10 to 12 gallons. This is the major digestive organ, and where most nutrients are absorbed.[5] It has three parts, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The majority of digestion occurs in the duodenum while the majority of absorption occurs in the jejunum. Bile from the liver aids in digesting fats in the duodenum combined with enzymes from the pancreas and small intestine . Horses do not have a gall bladder, so bile flows constantly. [3] Most food is digested and absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine, including proteins, simple carbohydrate, fats, and vitamines A, D, and E. Any remaining liquids and roughage move into the large intestine.


[The large intestine

[ Cecum
The cecum is the first section of the large intestine. It is also known as the "water gut" or "hind gut." It is a cul-de-sac pouch,[5] about 4 feet (1.2 m) long that holds 7 to 8 gallons. It contains bacteria that digest cellulose plant fiber through fermentation.[6] These bacteria feed upon digestive chyme, and also produce certain fat-soluble vitamins which are absorbed by the horse.[3] The reason horses must have their diets changed slowly is so the bacteria in the cecum are able to modify and adapt to the different chemical structure of new feedstuffs.[5] Too abrupt a change in diet can cause colic, as the new food is not properly digested.


[ Colon
The large colon, small colon, and rectum make up the remainder of the large intestine. The large colon is 10-12 feet long and holds up to 20 gallons of semi-liquid matter. It is made up of the right lower (ventral) colon, the left lower (ventral) colon, the left upper (dorsal) colon, the right upper (dorsal) colon, and the transverse colon, in that order.[3] Three flexures are also named; the sternal flexure, between right and left ventral colon; the pelvic flexure, between left dorsal and left ventral colon; the diaphragmatic flexure, between left dorsal and right dorsal colon. The main purpose of the large colon is to absorb carbohydrates, which were broken down from cellulose in the cecum. Due to its many twists and turns, it is a common place for a type of horse colic called an impaction.[5][6]

The small colon is 10-12 feet in length and holds only 5 gallons of material. It is the area where the majority of water in the horse's diet is absorbed, and is the place where fecal balls are formed. The rectum is about one foot long, and acts as a holding chamber for waste matter, which is then expelled from the body via the anus.[3

عدد القراءات: 2832
المصدر: سيريا فيت


طباعة
طباعة المقال
أرسل إلى صديق
أرسل إلى صديق









مقالات اخرى


سم النحل وخصائصه

تكوين وإفراز سم النحل فى شغالة نحل العسل من زوج من غدد السم المتحورة عن الغدد الزائدة ويتم تخزينه فى كيس السم والذى يفرغ محتوياته عند اللزوم فى قاعدة آلة اللسع. والنحل حديث الخروج من العيون السداسية به كمية صغيرة جداً من سم النحل, ولكن بتقدم عمر الشغالة... المزيد


الفوائد العلاجية لمنتجات نحل العسل

لتنشيط القدرة الجنسية, وعلاج الضعف الجنسى. لتنشيط وتقوية الذاكرة. لخفض الكوليسترول فى الدم. لمقاومة الشعور بالتعب والإرهاق البدنى والذهنى. لتقوية جهاز المناعة ومقامة الإصابة بالرشح والزكام والأنفلونزا..... المزيد


العناصر المعدنية و أهميتها في تغذية الدواجن

يمكن تعريف المواد المعدنية بأنها تلك العناصر التي تستعمل كلية أو بدرجة كبيرة في الصورة الغير عضوية . وظائف العناصر المعدنية : 1. تدخل في تركيب الأنسجة وتعطى الصلابة والقوة للهيكل العظمى . 2. تدخل في تركيب كثير من المواد العضوية كالبروتينات ... المزيد


مخطط لدورات انتاج دجاج لحم + دجاج بياض

هذة مخططات سير العملية الانتاجية للدجاج اللاحم ( التسمين) و الدجاج البياض من شركة دجاج الوطنية بالسعودية والتى تعتبر من اكبر شركات إنتاج الدواجن فى الوطن العربى... المزيد


تأثير بعض مواد العلف غير التقليدية على إنتاج كتاكيت اللحم

the effects of some unconventional feedstuffs on the performance of broiler chicks التقينا بالسيد الأستاذ الدكتور مجدي أحمد عوض حسين الباحث الأول بمعهد بحث الإنتاج الحيواني- مركز البحوث الزراعية- وزارة الزراعة المصرية... المزيد



التعليقات



ندعو الجميع إلى الانضمام إلى مجموعتنا على الفيسبوك بالضغط على الرابط التالي نحن نتشرف بانضمامك إلى عائلتنا
اخلاء مسؤولية : لا يدعم الموقع أو يوصي بأي علاج طبي ( بشري - بيطري ) ورد في الموقع الرجاء اقرأ التفاصيل
 

Back to TOP