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Chapter One -Introduction and Literature Review Chapter One 1. INTRODUCTION AND LITRERTURE REVIEW 1. 1. Introduction Donkeys constitute one of useful domestic animal and

 distributed all over the world donkeys are of feasible economic importance because of their easy rearing and breeding Donkeys are becoming increasingly important animals in the Sudan given the new socio-economic situation with an increased uses of donkeys instead of horses in labor and transportation. (ALI et al., 2001)
The duration of pregnancy in donkeys is estimated at about 13 month and they give one births only.
There are several diseases which affect donkeys, for instance, different types of internal and external parasites, different types of pneumonia and wounds.
In many of these cases, we use antibiotics in the treatment of donkeys Among these antibiotics Tetracycline .
Tetracyclines are a broad-spectrum antibiotic active against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and –negative bacteria, rickettsia, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia (Riviere and Spoo, 1995).
1.2.1. Tetracyclines :-
Tetracyclines have a broad range of antimicrobial activity and differences between individual members in general small. Mode of action :
Tetracyclines interfere with protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes and their selective action is due to higher uptake by bacterial than by human cells. they are bacteriostatic . Pharmacokinetics:
Most tetracyclines are only partially absorbed from alimentary tract enough remaining in the intestine to alter the flora and cause diarrhea. They are distributed throughout the body and cross the placenta. Tetracyclines are excreted mainly unchanged in the urine and should be avoided when renal function is severely impaired . exceptionally among the Tetracyclines, doxycycline and minocycline are eliminated by no renal routes and may be used in impaired renal function because of this property. Uses :
Tetracyclines are active against nearly all gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacteria but increasing bacterial resistance limits their use .
They remain drugs of first choice however for infection with chlamydiae, mycoplasma “pneumonia”
An unexpected use for a Tetracycline occurs in the treatment of hyponatraemia due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) for which demeclocyclin is effective when water restriction has failed. Adverse reactions :
Heartburn , nausea and vomiting due to gastric are common, and attempts to reduce this with milk or antacids impair absorption of Tetracyclines loose bowel movement occur due to alteration of the bowel flora, and this sometimes develops into diarrhea and opportunistic infection( anti-biotic associated or pseudo membranous colitis ) may supervene . disorders of epithelial surfaces, perhaps due partly to vitamin B complex defectioncy and partly due mild opportunistic infection with yeasts and moulds, lead to sore mouth and throat ,black hairy tongue, dysphagia and perianal soreness. vitamin B preparation may prevent or arrest alimentary tract symptoms.
Tetracyclines are selectively taken up in teeth and growing bones of the fetus and of foal , due to their chelating properties with calcium phosphate .this causes dental enamel hyperplasia with pitting ,cusp malformation , yellow or brown pigmentation and increased susceptibility to caries .
After the fourteenth week of pregnancy and in the first few month of life , even short courses can be damaging . Interactions:
Dairy products reduce absorption to a degree but antacids and iron preparations do so much more , by chelation to calcium, aluminium and iron. Individual tetracyclines:
We will used Oxytetracycline in this experiment. The Drug Oxytetracycline
Oxytetracycline interfere with the ability of bacteria to produce proteins that Tattab necessary for them, and without these proteins the bacteria can not grow and multiply.
Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial infrequently used in horses because of concerns over potentially Fatal adverse gastrointestinal effects.( Andersson et al. 1971 ,& Baker ( 1973 . However oxytetracycline has become the treatment of choice for suspected or known cases of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis
(Potomac horse fever) and the emerging zoonotic disease equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis .So, the work oxytetracycline in stopping the spread of bacteria and to prevent bacterial infection, and the remaining bacteria are killed by the immune system or eventually die.
Oxytetracycline antibiotic broad spectrum which means that anti-active against a wide variety of bacteria. However, there have been strains of bacteria resistant to this antibiotic, resulting in reduced effectiveness in the treatment of some types of bacterial infections.
But the treatment is still used to treat a wide variety of diseases caused by bacteria (such as eye inflammation, gastroenteritis, diphtheria, fever, travel, inflammation of the urethra infections genital, Alonablazma, disease, navel, and poisoning of bacterial and other diseases) is also used against infections caused by bacteria Mycoplasma (such as pneumonia) and infections Rikedzia. Toxcicty:
Tetracycline cause fatal inflammation in the intestine in horses
There is a relationship between the use of high doses of tetracycline and serious diarrhea in horses and that this effect also occurred after the use of normal doses of tetracycline in horses strained to transport drugs or anesthesia (with or without surgery).
Usually treated horses dead after the third day and the following symptoms appear:
 aneroxia
 Diarrhea
 Conjunctivitis
 Jaundice
 This syndrome resembling colitis x (Einstein,eal 1994).
1. Donkeys are important in traction and carrying luggage in most parts
Of Sudan
2. Tetracyclines , are effective broad-spectrum antibiotics.
General Objectives:
To study and compare the side effect of Tetracyclines in Donkeys when administered intravenously and intramuscularly at a therapeutic dose.
Specific objectives:
1. To study the side effects of Oxytetracycline in non pregnant donkeys when administered intravenously at a therapeutic dose.
2. To study the side effects of Oxytetracycline in non pregnant donkeys when administered intramuscularly at a therapeutic dose.
3. To study the side effects of Oxytetracycline in pregnant donkeys when administered intramuscularly at a therapeutic dose.
Chapter Two
Materials and Methods
Chapter Two
2.1. Materials
2.1.1 Drug:
Drug used in this experiment is :-
1. Oxytetracycline : Oxytetracycline injection (1.0% w/v sterile solution of Oxytetracycline manufactured by OXYT.
2.1.2 Experimental animals:
Sixteen healthy non-pregnant and pregnant donkeys 2 years old 80 kg body weight were selected from tambool area, Gezira State. They were clinically examined and kept in separate pens at the Department of Medicine Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Gezira where they were fed with berssem, and water being allowed freely. They were ear tagged and serially rested for a period of 3 days to adapt to the new environment before the start of experimentation. Clinical examination involved temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, auscultation . Blood sample were collected for heamoglobin. faecal samples were taken and stained for helminthes and protozoa. Smears were taken for blood parasites. Pregnancy diagnosis was done by the rectal palpation method.
Experimental Design:
Two experiments will conducted, The duration of each experiment will be 30 days.
1. Experiment One: comprised 12 non pregnant donkeys divided as follows: (four animals in each group )
GA Control (Healthy animals)
GB Animals in this group given intramuscular injection of oxytetracycline at a dose of 2ml /10 kg body wight
GC Animals in this group given intravenous injection of oxytetracycline at a dose 2ml /10 kg body wight
2. Experiment two: comprised 12 pregnant donkeys divided as follows: (four animals in each group )
Conducting eight experiments on 5 groups of four donkeys of these groups made up of females during pregnancy and the other four non-pregnant .
Group 1 Control
Group 2 Animals in this group given intramuscular injection of oxytetracycline at a dose 2ml /10 kg body wight
2.2.1. Haematological Techniques: Blood samples
Blood samples were collected daily from jugular vein of pregnant and non-pregnant donkey before and after injection of tetracyclines using a vacutainer. Blood samples were divided into two groups; in Group 1, blood samples were taken in heperinised 10ml vacutainer tubes and mixed very well, but not shaken, to avoid haemolysis and kept for haematological investigation. Group 2; for serum analysis blood was left standing overnight at room temprature in a 10 ml vacutainers without anticoagulant. The serum obtained was transferred by a pipette into 10 ml test tubes, There were centrifuged and the pure serum was transferred into plastic vials. Which were immediately distorted at 20C for biochemical analysis. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb / dl):
Haemoglobin concentration was determined by using Sahli's method (acid haematin method) as described by Jain (1986). The methods was based on conversion of haemoglobin to acid haematin by adding small amounts of diluted hydrochloric acid (HCL). Then the results were compared with the standard colour of the apparatus. Packed cell volume (PCV %):
The packed cell volume was determined by using the microhaematocrit technique (Jain, 1986). Fresh samples of blood were drawn in heparinized capillary tubes(one end of the tube was sealed) and centrifuged in a microhaematocrit centrifuge for five minutes (Hawksley and Sons LTd England). The PCV percentage was read in Hawksley micro-haematochrit reader. Red blood corpuscles count (RBCs x 1012/ L):
Red blood cells were counted using improved Neubauer chamber (Hawksley and soons ltd , England). Haymen’s solution was used as a diluting fluid which consists of 0.59 sodium sulphate, 0.5g merecuric chloride and 1.0g sodium chloride made up to 200ml with distilled water as described by (Jain, 1986).
2.2.2. Biochemical methods: Bilirubin
Duazo test
2-2-3: Clinical examination
Clinical examination involved temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, auscultation. faecal samples respiratory rate
Respiratory rate in donkeys 9-14 per minute with the situation in mind, it increases in foals also notes if there is a discharge from the nose or a cough. Pulse:
Animal must be given a chance to rest before the pulse in order to rest his breath and pulse and pulse is measured from the maxillary artery as soon as the Antty around the edge of the lower jaw in order to give facial artery facial
2..2.3.3 Temperature
Taken Baltermumitr temperature of the anus with the observation that the thermometer adjacent to the wall of the rectum for two minutes and the temperature normal horses 37.5 to 38.5.
2.2.4. Statistical analysis:
Data presentation will perform using SPSS (Microsoft Ver. No. 10 m, USA). All data taken were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) under completely randomized designs, with 5% and 1% levels of significance (Gomes and Gomez, 1984).The data are expressed as mean ± SD and presented in tables and figures.
 Budget:
Item No Total price in SD
experimental Donkeys 16donkeys 4800
Oxytetracycline concentration of 5%
10(100 ml) 80
Kites Bilirubin test 2 -
Syringes. 50 25
Stethoscope 1 -
Thermometer 1 -
Anatomy of equipment.
1 -
Kites hemoglobin 1 20
Nutrition - 300
Transport - 100
Test tubes 75 30
PCV - 50
Total r test - 100
Other - 150
Total - 5655 SD
ALI, T. M. O., K. E. E. IBRAHIM, E. H. A. ELTOM, M. E. HAMID (2001): Animal diseases diagnosed at the University of Khartoum Veterinary Teaching Hospital (1995-1998). Sud. J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb. 40, 38-44.
Andersson G, Ekman L, Mansson I, et al. Lethal complications
following administration of oxytetracycline in the horse.
Nordic Vet Med 1971;23:9–22
Baker JR, Leyland A. Diarrhoea in the horse associated
with stress and tetracycline therapy. Vet Rec 1973;93:
Brown MP, Stover SM, Kelly RH, et al. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride in the horse: serum, synovial, peritoneal and urine concentrations after single dose intravenous administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1981;4:7–10.
Einstein ,Jones, Knifton, Starmer,( 1994 ) Principles of Veterinary Therapeutics longman group UK Limited
Riviere, JE and Spoo, JW (1995). Tetracycline antibiotics. In: Adams, RH (Ed.), Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics. (7th. Edn.),
Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press. PP:
Laurence . Bennett . brown (1999 ) Clinical pharmacology
Mohammed Abd Elrhaman Makki
Mohammed Abdullah Ibrahim Abdullah

A dissertation submitted to the University of Gezira in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine
Dr . Mazahir Mohammed Shikh Idris
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
University of Gezira
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
University of Khartoum
February 2012
1.1: Introduction ………………………………………………….
1 . 2 . Literature Review…………………………………………..
1.2.1. Tetracyclines …………. Mode of action ……………….. Pharmacokinetics ……………… Uses Adverse reactions Interactions Individual tetracyclines The Drug Oxytetracycline Toxcicty
2.1. Materials ………………………………………………………
2.1.1. Drugs …………………………………………………………
2.1.2. Animals ………………………………………………………

2.2. METHODS ……………………………………………………
2.2.1. Haematological methods ………………………………........ Blood samples ……………………………………………… Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration …………………………. Packed cell volume (PCV) ………………………………… Red blood corpuscles count (RBC) ………………………
2.2.2. Bilirubin

Mohammed Abd Elrhaman Makki & Mohammed Abdullah Ibrahim Abdullah